How can the human dimensions of disaster impacts be more accurately captured and represented in the analysis, modeling and simulation of disasters?
Since the natural; social and human factors of disasters and their interrelationships are not well defined; it is difficult to more accurately capture and represent the human dimension of disaster impacts in disaster analysis; modeling and simulation. As a result; deficiencies and inadequacies arise in disaster preventive measures and post-disaster measures. The actual damage situation could not be understood comprehensively and concretely. It can be said that the damage caused by the disaster often becomes more serious. From the standpoint of social science; the multi-layered causes of disasters in general; including not only natural factors but also social and man-made factors have to be defined. And it is also necessary to accumulate case studies and compare them to each other in order to clarify the commonality and differentiate Those kinds of studies are expected to create a comprehensive understanding of the damage and its impact of natural disasters.
What type of data and supporting research infrastructure would be necessary to enable novel, transdisciplinary approaches to answering these and other human-centered disaster questions?
Knowledge integration among the natural; social and human factors of disasters in the field of disaster prevention needs to be done in the “field'' where disaster prevention issues are faced. Related data and information obtained in their native languages; case studies and examples of disaster risk reduction will be shared in collaboration between relevant parties in the field; such as national and local government agencies; companies; organizations; communities and residents; and the domestic and international scientific community related to disaster risk reduction. Based on the solution method; it draws a picture of what it should be; presents an integrated response scenario based on scientific knowledge; and connects it to practice. Since this requires a wide range of knowledge and experience; the information infrastructure that supports this series of processes (synthesis) on the Internet is the "Online Integrated Knowledge System for Promoting Disaster Resilience and Sustainability." Synthesis System for Sustainability and Resilience (OSS-SR)"; and the active use of "facilitators" as players who organically connect to the solution of issues that occur on site is valid*. *Science Council of Japan; RECOMMENDATION: Building a sustainable global society by strengthening disaster resilience: - Developing an "Online Synthesis System (OSS)" and fostering "Facilitators" to realize consilience -; 2020.
In what ways can US-Japan collaborations advance these questions in new and important ways?
The scientific community should develop the Online Synthesis System (OSS) to promote DRR and Sustainable Development. To support enhancement of synthesis for strengthening disaster resilience and promoting sustainable development; the scientific community should develop the Online Synthesis Systems (OSS) under interdisciplinary cooperation with international scientific organizations; various on-site stakeholders; and UN/international agencies. The OSS should be equipped with functions for users to explore; collect; archive; and search in various languages; scientific information as well as information of experiences; including good practices and success/failure stories; shared from all over the world and basic information on legal systems and policies. The OSS should also have functions to integrate these data and information; conduct forecast and simulation; facilitate effective risk communications through visualization; and establish information exchange and dialogue among stakeholders. The US and Japan can collaborate as the leading countries of disaster studies to enhance the online system to gather world-wide knowledge and organize them. The scientific community should foster Facilitators. Knowledge; experiences; and methods suitable for their location should be provided and external experiences and resources should be effectively introduced so that on-site stakeholders can; in an inclusive and participatory manner; enhance disaster resilience and sustainable development effectively; while taking advantage of the OSS and based on integrated scientific knowledge. To do so; Facilitators are required to assist stakeholders who effectively apply science and technology; protect their lives and assets; and continue their livelihoods and businesses*.